# Engineering Marble Movers

In this unit, students discover that pushes and pulls are forces that change the motion of an object. They begin by exploring how objects move in different directions when they are pushed or pulled, and then investigate how changing the strength of a force changes the distance an object moves. They then use a model to see how friction affects the distance and speed with which an object moves over a surface.

This page is a high-level extract from the final lesson of Kindergarten in which students apply their scientific knowledge to a design solution that can change the speed of an object with a push or a pull.

## Science Background for Teachers:

The science background gives teachers more detailed information about the topic students will be exploring in the lesson. It seeks to answer the deeper “how” and “why” questions that teachers may have about the concepts being investigated.

Mechanical engineering is the field of engineering concerned with applying forces and energy transfer to design and build machines. A machine is a technology that uses kinetic energy to do work. Remember that engineers use scientific knowledge and mathematics to solve a problem by creating new technologies. A problem is a need that a technology can solve, and a technology is anything that people have modified from the natural world to meet their needs and wants.

## Science Lesson: Engineering Marble Movers

During this Physical Science unit of Kindergarten, students begin their exploration of forces and motion, considering how strength of force and friction affect movement.

In this last lesson of the unit, students apply what they have learned about forces and motion to design a structure that guides a marble from one place to another as fast as possible and then stops its motion.

## Science Big Ideas

• There are many technologies in our everyday lives that use scientific ideas about forces and motion to solve problems.
• Ramps can be used to make an object move faster. Friction can be used to make an object slow down or stop.

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## Science Essential Questions

• How are engineers different from scientists?
• What is the purpose of a slide?
• What kinds of problems can be solved using what you know about forces and motion?
• How could an engineer get an object that was traveling fast to slow down?
• How can you guide a marble to travel 6 feet as fast as possible and then make it stop?

## Common Science Misconceptions

Misconception: Constant motion requires a constant force.

Fact: Once a force causes an object to move, that object will continue to move until another force acts on it, causing it to change its motion.

Misconception: Moving objects stop when the force moving them “runs out.”

Fact: Objects only change their motion by force. For example, objects slow down because of the force of friction. Without a force to change its motion, a moving object would continue moving forever.

## Science Vocabulary

Energy : the ability to do work

Friction : a force that slows motion when two objects rub against each other

Speed : how fast an object moves

## Hands-on Science Activity

As the main activity of this lesson, students act as engineers to use what they know about forces and motion to design a structure that guides a marble from one place to another as fast as possible and then stops its motion. Students consider the problem that needs to be solved, design a solution, draw and build their prototype before testing it and making necessary adjustments. Students also engage in dialogue to analyze the engineering process they experience to notice how they could improve their prototype and whether or not they solve the problem.

## Science Assessments

KnowAtom incorporates formative and summative assessments designed to make students thinking visible for deeper student-centered learning.

• Vocabulary Check
• Lab Checkpoints
• Concept Check Assessment
• Concept Map Assessment
• And More...

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Discover hands-on screens-off core science curriculum for student centered K-8 classrooms. KnowAtom supports classrooms with all hands-on materials, curriculum, and professional development to support mastery of the standards.