Want to understand the Next Generation Science Standards? In three words: three-dimensional learning. Figuring out exactly what those words mean and how they make NGSS different from existing standards will get you much closer to understanding exactly what is expected in the next generation of science education.
The term “NGSS three-dimensional learning" refers to the three pillars that support each standard, now called NGSS performance expectations. The NGSS three dimensions are:
- Science and Engineering Practices
- Crosscutting Concepts
- Disciplinary Core Ideas
You can use this rubric to evaluate your own science curriculum for NGSS.
NGSS 3d learning essentially shifts science education. Science is no longer seen as fact trivia or rote memorization. NGSS recognizes that while specific knowledge of content is important, facts and memorization fall far short of what’s required to do science and engineering.
Equally important is the ability to create, analyze, and evaluate using NGSS three-dimensional learning because science is not static. Scientists are constantly discovering new knowledge or new ways of looking at existing knowledge. Therefore, students must be able to understand scientific concepts, and use those concepts to answer questions and solve problems. Students must also recognize how those concepts connect to other concepts in other STEM fields.
So, what do the NGSS 3 dimensions entail? Let’s take a closer look to understand more about how they relate to NGSS performance expectations.
The Three Dimensions: Pillars of the NGSS 3d Learning Model
NGSS Dimension 1: 8 Science and Engineering Practices
Science and engineering practices are the same skills that scientists use to answer questions and engineers use to solve problems in the real world.
An NGSS curriculum should teach the 8 science and engineering practices identified by the National Research Council:
Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)
Developing and using models
Planning and carrying out investigations
Analyzing and interpreting data
Using mathematics and computational thinking
Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)
Engaging in argument from evidence
Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
By stressing the importance of these practices, NGSS is emphasizing that science is not just isolated facts. When students engage in the practices, they learn through NGSS performance tasks how scientific knowledge develops by working through the same practices that scientists and engineers use. This participation also creates a more meaningful learning experience because students are doing science, which, in turn, better prepares them for NGSS performance assessments.
NGSS Dimension 2: Crosscutting Concepts
NGSS curriculum crosscutting concepts are those concepts that apply across all scientific disciplines. They provide students with an organizational framework based on behavior and function that connects ideas from different scientific disciplines in an NGSS curriculum. These concepts play an important role in NGSS three-dimensional learning. For example, students can see how energy and matter are essential to understanding Life Sciences, but also for understanding Physical Science, Earth Science, and Engineering.
NGSS Crosscutting Concepts:
Cause and effect
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
Systems and System Models
Energy and Matter
Structure and Function
Stability and Change
NGSS Dimension 3: Disciplinary Core Ideas
Disciplinary Core Ideas form the basis of what most educators would consider STEM "content knowledge," also known as scientific facts, in an NGSS curriculum.
These core ideas are grouped into four content domains:
Engineering, technology, and application of science
The elements of the three dimensions required for each NGSS performance expectation are clearly designated. NGSS also includes supporting elements, which provide the bounds of a scenario that students may be presented with when asked to perform expected learning outcomes on future standardized tests.
By successfully creating hands-on science and NGSS three-dimensional learning experiences, teachers can achieve maximum student engagement and outcomes within the context of the NGSS performance expectations.